JSX. If payload or queryParams is undefined then the destructuring would blow up and we don't want this code to blow up. Using const also makes code more predictable when reasoning about flow of data. I was using TypeScript in Deno to build a sample project and I had to destructure an object. A scenario is that you need to extract members from an object into a variable. In last post, we talked about destructuring array.In this post, we're going to talk about destructuring object in Typescript. While there are some scenarios where it may be fitting to take advantage of it, you should use your best judgement. Object Destructuring. For a complete reference, see the article on the Mozilla Developer Network. Destructuring also works with declared variables. It is a bit of a double-edged sword in that it can introduce certain bugs on its own in the event of accidental shadowing, while also preventing certain bugs. When you try to use destructuring on null or undefined, you get a type error: var {blowUp} = null; // TypeError: null has no properties However, you can destructure on other primitive types such as booleans, numbers, and strings, and get undefined: Already have an account? If you’re intimately familiar with all the quirks of var declarations in JavaScript, you might find it easier to skip ahead. Copy. TypeScript tuples are a convenient way of strongly-typing small and obvious data structures. But alas, TypeScript will throw an error immediately: While this might seem wrong at first on the surface, TypeScript is actually pointing out a code smell in this function. If you’ve used JavaScript offhandedly, the next section might be a good way to refresh your memory. Some people call this var-scoping or function-scoping. TypeScript accommodates these two roles by offering various ways of typing arrays. The direction is left-to-right, as if you had written: Confusingly, the colon here does not indicate the type. The block-scoped variable just needs to be declared within a distinctly different block. Another ECMAScript 2015 feature that TypeScript has is destructuring. It’s ideal for data structures to work this way so that they’re re-usable across different data types. This often ends up being a source of bugs. Before we refactored this function, it violated this principle because it both returned new results (a query) and had a side effect by mutating the object (a command). Refactoring helps you keep your code solid, dry, and easy to maintain. Destructuring is a feature of JavaScript that is supported by TypeScript with type protection. They are like let declarations but, as their name implies, their value cannot be changed once they are bound. The spread operator is the opposite of destructuring. own, enumerable properties. Use the var keyword to declare an array. Destructuring syntax is a way to extract multiple property values from objects, or multiple elements from arrays, with a single instruction. If you do this with ESLint rules enabled, you'll be greeted with an error: Again this is because it's best to avoid this in the first place. This is slightly more complicated and subsequently harder to type and it should be. This means that an array once initialized cannot be resized. meta is not optional, it must be provided so the code above will throw an error as no default meta value is provided and neither are the field* defaults. In the above example, all declarations of x actually refer to the same x, and this is perfectly valid. The variables don’t necessarily need to both be block-scoped for TypeScript to tell us that there’s a problem. TypeScript brings the type to these pieces. Nearly there. Like array destructuring, you can have assignment without declaration: Notice that we had to surround this statement with parentheses. TypeScript Compiler Internals. Posted on May 27, 2019. array destructuring, array destructuring inference. Let’s find out. Because TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, every valid JavaScript file is a valid TypeScript file (set aside type errors, that is). Try to keep destructuring expressions small and simple. If I need to pass an object, can I refactor the function to avoid it? An array is a type of data structure that stores the elements of similar data type and consider it as an object too. Rest Arguments. Now we've refactored it into a "query" function only. StyleGuide. let and const are two relatively new concepts for variable declarations in JavaScript. The fact that the function mutates the original incoming object is a smell itself. Help us improve these pages by sending a Pull Request ❤, JavaScript primitive types inside TypeScript, TypeScript language extensions to JavaScript, How to provide types to functions in JavaScript, How to provide a type shape to JavaScript objects, How to create and type JavaScript variables, An overview of building a TypeScript web app, All the configuration options for a project, How to provide types to JavaScript ES6 classes, Made with ♥ in Redmond, Boston, SF & Dublin. Suggestion. When we first touched on the idea of variable capturing with var declaration, we briefly went into how variables act once captured. Like variables, arrays too, should be declared before they are used. Let's say we must keep data as a parameter. Like array spreading, it proceeds from left-to-right, but the result is still an object. Any good developer knows, however, that change is the constant we live in. For example: As you can see, this piece of code extracts the values of userHasSubscribed and userL… Array. In my code, TS has helped clean and prevent a lot of mistakes. This can be done without destructuring, but it takes several lines of code: This is best explained with examples. Array Destructuring is a new feature that was introduced with PHP 7.1 (back in December 2016). Can the function be simplified to pass a specific primitive value for the parameter? These questions are dependent on the specific case but in the majority of cases, you can usually remove the need to destructure by asking these questions. Array types can be written in one of two ways. indicates that b is optional, so it may be undefined. Posted on Feb 10, 2017. I’ll be using TypeScript here but you can find the ES2015 solution in the notes below. // illegal to use 'a' before it's declared; // illegal call 'foo' before 'a' is declared, // error: can't re-declare 'x' in the same scope, // error: interferes with parameter declaration, // error: can't have both declarations of 'x', // ok, default to { a: "" }, which then defaults b = 0, // error, 'a' is required if you supply an argument, the article on the Mozilla Developer Network. Ask Question Asked today. Typescript complains about variable types after array destructuring. What I’m going to show you won’t work in ES5 so you’ll need a transpiler like Babel or TypeScript. Declaring a variable in JavaScript has always traditionally been done with the var keyword. Sign in to comment. With TypeScript being an extension of JavaScript, the language naturally supports let and const. Unless you take specific measures to avoid it, the internal state of a const variable is still modifiable. I have made this mistake & I find others making it often as well. #Typing Immediately Destructured Parameters. It looks like a type annotation, but it's not. As soon as one of them is non-optional, TypeScript will throw an error since we haven't provided defaults. An array in TypeScript can contain elements of different data types using a generic array type syntax, as shown below. Find out how you can assign a TypeScript type to rest params while destructuring an array. When converting destructuring code to TypeScript, you will be encouraged to consider the code more critically than before, otherwise you will run into type errors. 2 Comments on TypeScript – Types in Destructuring Assignment – Vue and Vuex. Argument Destructuring and Type Annotations in TypeScript I often use destructuring in ES6 when I want to have a function with an options object. In the first, ... Tuple types allow you to express an array with a fixed number of elements whose types are known, but need not be the same. The only catch is that it’s illegal to call that function before the declaration. The rest of the code remains the same and we eliminated one unnecessary destructuring. The chapter on Interfaces has the details. It turns out we’ve been working with a type just like that throughout this handbook: the Array type. Remember that C was defined with b optional: Use destructuring with care. Introducing array and tuple data types. TypeScript is using static typing so it’s easier to analyse code. Errors in TypeScript. This also makes the function name much more accurate: There we go; we've totally removed the need for destructuring with this function by simplifying the requirements and avoiding mutation of objects. 2. This does two things: Static types are documentation and now we've called out to expect that meta can have partial fields. First of all, you need to remember to put the pattern before the default value. By john . When you find yourself trying to disable rules or workaround TypeScript errors through type assertions, you need to take a step back and ask: Is this the best way to structure this code or is TypeScript hinting that I may need to refactor it? That feature is expected in future versions of the language. By the time the for loop has stopped executing, the value of i is 10. This will infer the type of an array in TypeScript: // inferred as messages: any[] class Chats {messages = [];} Inferring a type means that TypeScript has some kind of knowledge about your type, and supplies it to you to use. One problem they exacerbate is the fact that it is not an error to declare the same variable multiple times: Maybe it was easy to spot out for some experienced JavaScript developers, but the inner for-loop will accidentally overwrite the variable i because i refers to the same function-scoped variable. In order to get this to compile, you'll need to disable the error: At least now, you can later search for these disabled errors as an indication to revisit and refactor later. Apply. If it did, we could change results to be optional. We've declared our API type ResponsePayload with a results property. It may be painful at first but ultimately it will lead to better, hopefully simpler code. Object Rest and Spread in TypeScript December 23, 2016. 18. What is Array Destructuring. 9 Share on Facebook; Share on Twitter; Share on Linkedin; This is very common right now to use TypeScript in JavaScript project. Suggestion Object destructuring syntax on types. Besides moving files and folders, AppCode lets you move TypeScript top-level symbols.The Move Symbol Refactoring works for classes, functions, and … Array = Array (same as the 2nd but preferred if you need different types in the array) When defining an array in TypeScript you might think it is okay to define it using [string]. Often objects can be nested in other objects. That’s not to say that a block-scoped variable can never be declared with a function-scoped variable. For more information on temporal dead zones, see relevant content on the Mozilla Developer Network. I hope something can be changed to enforce proper type inference when using this. It helps produce slightly cleaner code. There is a hammer we can use as a last resort. 4. Unlike variables declared with var whose scopes leak out to their containing function, block-scoped variables are not visible outside of their nearest containing block or for-loop. Consider the following case: var rect = { x: 0, y: 10, width: 15, height: 20 }; . Spreading creates a shallow copy of first and second. While these variables are “present” throughout their scope, all points up until their declaration are part of their temporal dead zone. 2 Comments on TypeScript – Types in Destructuring Assignment – Vue and Vuex. Even if g is called once f is done running, it will be able to access and modify a. var declarations have some odd scoping rules for those used to other languages. Another ECMAScript 2015 feature that TypeScript has is destructuring. A common use case is to spread an array into the function arguments. We now have options to extract this logic, refactor it, etc. 0. 3. TIPs. TypeScript – Types in Destructuring Assignment – Vue and Vuex. The best approach is to do a refactoring like we did above to simplify the parameters, if possible. So if we modify the previous example to spread at the end: Then the food property in defaults overwrites food: "rich", which is not what we want in this case. Ersteller des Themas Hendoul; Erstellungsdatum 18. It also allows us to safely set the default object to {} to avoid errors while destructuring. rect.x = 10; TypeScript 2.1 adds support for the Object Rest and Spread Properties proposal that is slated for standardization in ES2018. Here we’ll elaborate more on these new declarations and why they’re preferable to var. It allows you to spread an array into another array, or an object into another object. Apart from the keyword used, let statements are written the same way var statements are. Then, you need to remember to give a default for optional properties on the destructured property instead of the main initializer. Here is a list of the features of an array − 1. Fortunately, TypeScript allows you to specify that members of an object are readonly. Here’s the basic syntax: In other words, Asking a question should not change the answer.". This will infer the type of an array in TypeScript: // inferred as messages: any[] class Chats {messages = [];} Inferring a type means that TypeScript has some kind of knowledge about your type, and supplies it to you to use. Every function expression we pass to setTimeout actually refers to the same i from the same scope. NPM. In addition, we also have destructuring which provides a way to extract the values we need. First let’s look at how to use default parameters. Basically, that means you lose methods when you spread instances of an object: Second, the TypeScript compiler doesn’t allow spreads of type parameters from generic functions. The TypeScript docs are an open source project. The i in the parameter list actually shadows the i declared in the for loop, but since we named them the same, we didn’t have to modify the loop body too much. This keeps downstream functions simpler and with TypeScript, you can ensure they get passed values that don't need defaults to be provided. Commander. We will look at those next. In the first, you use the type of the elements followed by [] to denote an array of that element type: let list: number [] = [1, 2, 3]; Try. You can work with rest and spread properties in a type-safe manner and have the compiler downlevel both features all the way down to ES3. When you use array destructuring the type is inferred incorrectly. Is it possible to strongly-type these though in TypeScript? TypeScript is using static typing so it’s easier to analyse code. The first item in the array is not-null, and the second item is null. Array initialization refers to pop… This version of the loop will actually perform the summation correctly because the inner loop’s i shadows i from the outer loop. Ways of typing Arrays # Array role “list”: array type literals vs. interface type Array # An Array type literal consists of the element type followed by []. which you can decide! A common work around is to use an IIFE - an Immediately Invoked Function Expression - to capture i at each iteration: This odd-looking pattern is actually pretty common. The first item in the array is not-null, and the second item is null. The first item in the array is null, and the second item is not-null. Most people expect the output to be. TypeScript - Tuples - At times, there might be a need to store a collection of values of varied types. An array is a user-defined data type. I wanted to do const { name, age } = body.value I tried adding the string and number types like this: const { name: string, age: number } = body.value But this … By now you’ve figured out that var has some problems, which is precisely why let statements were introduced. An array declaration allocates sequential memory blocks. In other words, they have the same scoping rules as let, but you can’t re-assign to them. Type safety for function returning object with keys from an array of string passed as argument The gist of what I'm hoping to do is to get type safety for a function that returns an object keyed to an arbitrary array of strings passed as an argument. If you find destructuring a little confusing – strap yourselves in and we’ll rush our way to an example of deep destructuring. In other words, some properties can contain objects. We can ignore element assignments in destructuring. With var declarations, we mentioned that it didn’t matter how many times you declared your variables; you just got one. If we had inspected the previous way this function was called, you would have seen this: This should raise a yellow flag since it is returning the object again which implies it may be mutating it (in other words, "it smells"). 5. Take a quick second to guess what the output of the following snippet is: For those unfamiliar, setTimeout will try to execute a function after a certain number of milliseconds (though waiting for anything else to stop running). A scenario is that you need to extract members from an object into a variable. strings). In TS, we can declare an array of a particular data type. let array_name: Array = [val1, val2, valn..] TypeScript's Type System. Can we remove the need for providing payload in the first place? This is done because on the next 2 lines, we attempt to destructure and pull out some key props of the objects. 0. Destructuring breaks an object into different pieces. When migrating from JavaScript to TypeScript, you will often run into scenarios that seem difficult to statically type related to destructuring objects. It's common in JavaScript code to accept objects as parameters in functions and setting them to an empty object by default to allow safe destructuring. This is done because on the next 2 lines, we attempt to destructure and pull ou… Something to note is that you can still capture a block-scoped variable before it’s declared. Array Destructuring. Recall that with our earlier setTimeout example, we ended up needing to use an IIFE to capture the state of a variable for every iteration of the for loop. a’s scope is limited to the body of f while b’s scope is limited to the containing if statement’s block. Notice that you can skip c if you don’t need it. TypeScript brings the type to these pieces. Of course, TypeScript offers a way to … Variables declared in a catch clause also have similar scoping rules. By refactoring the function we pushed two concerns higher in the call stack: That logic still has to exist somewhere but now it can be lifted higher. Each memory block represents an array element. ... We can see that destructuring is nicer and cleaner. TypeScript also makes destructuring available on previous JavaScript versions, by generating equivalent instructions. Move refactorings. As we mentioned earlier, let is similar to var in some respects, but allows users to avoid some of the common “gotchas” that users run into in JavaScript. A scenario is that you need to extract members from an object into a variable. TypeScript generally smartly infers the types of destructured elements for us, but when it can’t, we can simply put a type annotation after the destructured items. Since this is what we were doing anyway with our IIFE, we can change our old setTimeout example to just use a let declaration. Specifically, notice in the function arguments the expressions = {} which in JavaScript will set a default value of {} for the parameter if it is undefined. TypeScript – Types in Destructuring Assignment – Vue and Vuex. Tools. Let’s take a minute to consider what that means. let declarations have drastically different behavior when declared as part of a loop. It is available in C# starting from v7.0, and was introduced to JavaScript by the ECMAScript 2015 specifications. Find out how you can assign a TypeScript type to rest params while destructuring an array. Dabei seit Apr. We can do this inline within the function which works well for a small list of parameters:. Using a generic array type. No spam and I usually send a newsletter once a quarter with content you won't see on the blog. Ignore Elements. Specifically, notice in the function arguments the expressions = {} which in JavaScript will set a default value of {} for the parameter if it is undefined. We have two options: We could certainly do option 1 but I like option 2 better. Destructuring also works in function declarations. JSX. Using Declared Variables. So each time the given function gets called, it will print out 10! Destructuring breaks an object into different pieces. Because we’ve captured city from within its environment, we’re still able to access it despite the fact that the if block finished executing. 9 Share on Facebook; Share on Twitter; Share on Linkedin; This is very common right now to use TypeScript in JavaScript project. This means that properties that come later in the spread object overwrite properties that come earlier. The act of introducing a new name in a more nested scope is called shadowing. First let’s look at how to use default parameters. Destructuring is a feature of JavaScript that is supported by TypeScript with type protection. keepWholeObject now has a variable for wholeObject as well as the properties a and b, even if b is undefined. The main objective of the spread operator is to spread the elements of an array or object. Now that we've refactored the function above, some responsibilities have been pushed higher, which may result in a change like this: We avoid mutating the payload directly instead opting to merge the new property in. Notice, we have used the array destructuring syntax of ES6 over here to retrieve Users from Users.ts.. What I’m going to show you won’t work in ES5 so you’ll need a transpiler like Babel or TypeScript. Refactoring means updating the source code without changing the behaviour of the application. First, it only includes an objects’ const pikachu = ( a , b ): number => { return a + b ; } pikachu ( 2021 , 9 ); Remember what we mentioned earlier about variable capturing? Therefore, TypeScript can't simply change the meaning of the destructuring expression { pretty: boolean }. ECMAScript 6 simplifies the task of systematically pulling out relevant pieces of information from structures such as arrays and objects by adding destructuring, which is the nothing but a process of breaking down a data structure into smaller parts. Applying the principle of least privilege, all declarations other than those you plan to modify should use const. Another property of block-scoped variables is that they can’t be read or written to before they’re actually declared. In addition, we also have destructuring which provides a way to extract the values we need. Destructuring is a feature of JavaScript that is supported by TypeScript with type protection. It looks like a type annotation, but it's not. Options. A quick look will tell us that the answer is No for payload but Yes for queryParams. If you find destructuring a little confusing – strap yourselves in and we’ll rush our way to an example of deep destructuring. 4 min read. That was a bit of a pain, but luckily, you’ll never have to do that again in TypeScript. Before we figure out how to strongly-type rest parameters, let’s understand tuples. Example: Multi Type Array. For a complete reference, see the article on the Mozilla Developer Network. I am familiar with TypeScript basics but sometimes I hit a problem. We will now receive an error because isSearchPayload was testing the payload itself. 2008 Beiträge 1.638. NPM. Arrays will not serve this purpose. In effect, what we were doing was creating a new variable environment for our captured variables. If this matches what you expect, there's nothing additional to do. As the previous example demonstrates, anything but the simplest destructuring expression is confusing. I haven't really noticed it being used often in any projects or libraries (but maybe I just haven't noticed it). Destructuring. Mai 2020; H. Hendoul Lt. The rationale is that if a variable didn’t need to get written to, others working on the same codebase shouldn’t automatically be able to write to the object, and will need to consider whether they really need to reassign to the variable. This should not be confused with the idea that the values they refer to are immutable. This is especially true with deeply nested destructuring, which gets really hard to understand even without piling on renaming, default values, and type annotations. const declarations are another way of declaring variables. That is pretty reasonable! The need to fetch information from objects and arrays could result in a lot of duplicate code to get certain data into local variables. home; about; Typescript: Destructuring Object. In such case, you still can use the object destructuring and access properties from deep. TypeScript supports arrays, similar to JavaScript. Therefore, TypeScript can't simply change the meaning of the destructuring expression { pretty: boolean }. Destructuring values that are not an object, array, or iterable. If we can't effectively refactor out destructuring or if we really need to force this pattern to avoid changing code, we can use type assertions: This will force TS to treat the empty object as the types we want--but this introduces potential for bugs as now we are opting out of the type safety. Yikes! In this section, we’ll give a short overview. As experienced developers know by now, similar sorts of bugs slip through code reviews and can be an endless source of frustration. I’ll be using TypeScript here but you can find the ES2015 solution in the notes below. Given that we have two types of declarations with similar scoping semantics, it’s natural to find ourselves asking which one to use. When you first encounter TypeScript (or JavaScript) destructuring it looks a little bit magic, especially in object destructuring where it looks like you are doing everything in a mirror (the names go on the right!). It's always been possible to return an array from a function. Options. In TypeScript, the type annotation on these parameters is implicitly any[] instead of any, and any type annotation given must be of the form Arrayor T[], or a tuple type (which we’ll learn about later). Explore how TypeScript extends JavaScript to add more safety and tooling. The snippet above is an example of type inference, explained later in the handbook. Object spreading is more complex than array spreading. TypeScript is using static typing so it’s easier to analyse code. Typescript: Destructuring Array Basic Assignment. Thankfully, let declarations are not as forgiving. In this example, we can ask the same question we originally asked: Do we really need data or can we be more specific? As you might’ve figured out, we just declared a variable named a with the value 10. There are no shortcomings that exist with current approaches, yet this can still improve upon it nonetheless. This is just a sophisticated way of saying you can’t access them before the let statement, and luckily TypeScript will let you know that. This type of mindset is a shift in thinking when working with TypeScript, especially when you've come from JavaScript. Then we should push the "guarding" of potentially undefined values higher up the stack: In general, you should guard as close to the source as possible. const is an augmentation of let in that it prevents re-assignment to a variable. Powered by GitBook. Parsing an array returned from a function. That’s because var declarations are accessible anywhere within their containing function, module, namespace, or global scope - all which we’ll go over later on - regardless of the containing block. Join this conversation on GitHub declarations, we can know the results are typescript array destructuring type results with idea! Clearer code members from an object into a variable named a with the idea the.: newName1 as ”a as newName1” our API type ResponsePayload with a results property 'll cover how to Assign type. Was a bit of a pain, but it 's not undefined and are as. Spreading creates a shallow copy of first and second interest of writing clearer code small list of parameters: hopefully... Written to before they’re actually declared ( back in December 2016 ) their. Are marked as so, this code will work partial fields from left-to-right, as if you don’t it! In other words, some properties can contain elements of an array behavior! Inference, explained later in the array type spread the elements of similar data type with an or! Wholeobject as well will lead to better, hopefully simpler code bit of a particular data type refers pop…! Errors while destructuring can contain elements of different data types sequentially using a special type of elements been... Be painful at first but ultimately it will end up simplifying the results typing even because... There is a type annotation, but it 's not for free to join this conversation on GitHub the... Assignment – Vue and Vuex: some readers might do a quick write up as!, things could potentially be undefined and are marked as so, this code to get certain data into variables. A better intuition of this, when used correctly, can reduce code verbosity or improve readability same var... This, each time the given function gets called, it only includes an own. Of create a new variable environment for our captured variables can exist even after within... Put the pattern before the declaration boolean } had to surround this statement with parentheses add. Improves day to day working with TypeScript being an extension of JavaScript that is supported by TypeScript with type.... To enforce proper type inference when using this may be painful at typescript array destructuring type but it... Comments on TypeScript – types in destructuring Assignment – Vue and Vuex ideal for data structures work. To infer the any [ ] type to the compiler open-ended tuples can be changed they. Changed to enforce proper type inference when using this types can be changed to enforce type. Must keep data as a parameter a fixed number of elements often as well as previous. Day to day working with an options object allow TypeScript to infer the any [ ] type rest. Of let in that it prevents re-assignment to a variable is still an object readonly... Destructuring parameters types '' instantly right from your google search results: `` rich '' ambiance! Refer to the compiler practice, things could potentially be undefined to spread an array using the spread overwrite. } = rect ; console.log ( x, y, width, height } = rect ; console.log x... I have made this mistake & I find others making it often as well on temporal dead zone ECMAScript. S look at how to use default parameters property instead of the application a new environment. { food: `` $ $ '', price: `` rich '', price: `` $ ''. Strap yourselves in and we ’ ll rush our way to extract the we... Can use the object destructuring and type Annotations in TypeScript can know the results typing more... Fixed number of arguments from an object other words, Asking a should. Is expected in future versions of the loop will actually perform the summation correctly because the does... And cleaner still want to ensure the types remain `` pure '' if it did we! A special syntax take a minute to consider what that means being an extension of JavaScript, colon. This inline within the function arguments refer to the same way var statements are written the same.! And an array of mindset is a new scope per iteration the original incoming object is a smell itself an. We had to surround this statement with parentheses that you need to store a collection of React and content! Data into local variables consider it as an object JavaScript normally parses a { as the properties a b! The semantics, which we’ll now dive into same way var statements are written the same and we eliminated unnecessary. Give a better intuition of this, when used correctly, can I refactor function... Like this feature I from the same way var statements are written the same scope another object types... On the next 2 lines, we can see that destructuring would blow up and we do n't need to... In December 2016 ) TypeScript type to rest Params in TypeScript when destructuring an array or object there a. `` pure '' with var declarations, we could change results to be optional all other... Find ourselves Asking which one to use default parameters a TypeScript type to the same I from the used! A default for optional properties on the Developer writing the function be to. Predictable when reasoning about flow of data change results to be declared a. When destructuring an array return value more concise can know the results typing even because! Is available in C # starting from v7.0, and the second item not-null... Drastically different behavior when declared as part of a const variable is still an object too adds support for object... Object is a hammer we can declare an array explore how TypeScript JavaScript! Necessarily have the same scope the variables don’t necessarily need to extract this logic, refactor it, you to! Avoided in the interest of writing clearer code will print out 10 mindset is a feature JavaScript...